Historical Dictionary of the Crusades (Historical Dictionaries of Ancient Civilizations and Historical Eras) (2nd Edition)
The crusades were among the longest and most bitter wars inhuman history and consisted of no less than seven major expeditionsfrom Western Europe from the late 11th to the early 14th centuriesfor the purpose of wresting Jerusalem and the Holy Land from thecontrol of the Muslims. In the end, it was the Muslims who won, andthe Christians who suffered a major setback, and the Middle Eastremained firmly in Muslim hands. This was one of the worst clashesbetween different religions and civilizations and, for long, it waslargely forgotten or brushed over. That is no longer the case, withmany Muslims regarding Western interference in the region as arepeat of the crusades while launching their own jihads. So, whilean old conflict, it is still with us today. Even at the time, itwas very hard to understand the causes and outcome of the crusades,and that remains a problem today. This Historical Dictionary of theCrusades cannot claim to have resolved it, but it most definitelydoes make the situation easier to understand. The introductionprovides an overview, tracing the crusades from one expedition tothe next, and assessing their impact. The actual flow of events isfar easier to follow thanks to the chronology. And maps help totrace the events geographically. The entries, and there are morethan 300 of them in this second edition, look more closely atnotable figures, including Pope Gregory VII, Richard thelionhearted, and Saladin, as well as important places (Jerusalem,Constantinople and others), events, battles and sieges, as well asthe use of weapons and armor. The bibliography points to furtherreading.