Raising Arms: Liturgy in the Struggle to Liberate Jerusalem (Cultural Encounters in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, Book 2)
Europe's commitment to the Holy Land and to the crusade wascreated and shaped through several modes of action, liturgy amongthem. Rites articulated the collective undertaking of thinking theidea of Jerusalem and experiencing it emotionally, they energizedthe faithful to raise armies and provide them with the sinews ofwar, accompanied the crusaders into battle, sung their victories,and lamented their defeats. And rites functioned as effectivechannels of information and propaganda, for knowledge imparted inchurch was endorsed with the stamp of ecclesiastical authority andreceived with due deference by a Christian society. Liturgy runs,therefore, throughout the entire history of the Jerusalem crusade.This monograph opens up a new and hitherto completely unexploredtype of primary source material for the study of the Crusades:crusading liturgical texts. For the first time, evidence is offeredof liturgical practices that heralded and prepared the way for theFirst Crusade, as well as those that celebrated its victory and theliturgical practices that were devised after the defeat of Hattinin 1187. The first part of this study presents a critical edition,based on the vast number of extant manuscripts, with textualvariants, reflecting the evolution of given liturgical practices invarious places and times. For liturgical ritual offered the bestframework for educating and forming the minds of the faithful. Thesecond part analyses the ideological content of the crusadingliturgy, and the different roles played by the largecultural-political regions (England, France, Germany) and certainreligious and political institutions (papacy, monastic orders andstates).